The "positive symptoms" of schizophrenia are things that are "extra," or present to those with schizophrenia but not present to everyone else. For example, someone with schizophrenia may see or smell things that other people do not see or smell, or hear voices or sounds that other people do not hear.
Positive symptoms also include fixed false beliefs (sometimes called delusions). Someone may believe that they are being followed by the FBI or have been chosen for a special role in their faith community or government. Because they are struggling with these positive symptoms of schizophrenia, individuals with schizophrenia who do not receive effective treatment often are unable to develop the skills needed to live independently or thrive in society.
Some of the most serious symptoms of schizophrenia may be hard to see. Known as "negative symptoms," these include "losses" such as the loss of:
- Emotional expression
- Logical communications
- Ability to experience pleasure and even cognitive abilities.
Because the first episode of schizophrenia typically appears at a time when young people are learning how to be adults, the long-term effects of these negative symptoms can have the greatest impact.