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outcomes & research

Treatment Outcomes for Adults in Mental Health Residential and Day Treatment

Skyland Trail is a trailblazer in the area of outcomes research, which is an integral part of our evidence-based treatment model. Our robust outcomes and research program employs evaluative instruments considered to be the gold standards in the mental health field to measure the effectiveness of our treatment programs. Outcome data from 2008 through 2017 confirm that our unique integrated, whole person approach helps our clients grow, recover, and reclaim their lives. People who complete the treatment program at Skyland Trail return to their communities with reduced symptoms and improved skills to pursue more independent and productive lives.

When clients begin treatment at Skyland Trail, they complete tests measuring their symptom severity, attitude toward medication adherence, hope for the future, level of functioning, senses of self efficacy and relationships with others, and physical health. We measure those indicators again when they complete their treatment.

Specialized instruments based on diagnoses and symptoms provide a more detailed picture of the effectiveness of specific treatment programs for bipolar illness, major depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety.



treatment outcomes

2018 Key Outcomes

  • 88% of all clients experienced a statistically significant improvement in functionality, symptoms, and social relationships
  • 88% of clients with anxiety experienced statistically significant improvement in control of anxiety
  • 90% of clients left treatment with a positive attitude about taking psychiatric medication
  • 85% of all clients experienced a statistically significant improvement in feelings of hopelessness
  • 92% of clients with very severe and severe symptoms of depression experienced clinically significant reduction
  • 100% of clients who had clinically meaningful episodes of mania showed no symptoms of clinically meaningful mania at discharge
  • 81% of patients with psychosis experience statistically significant improvement in their symptoms of psychosis

Read the 2018 Outcomes Research Summary Report

See how our clients get better by the numbers

Improved Medication Adherence

Scores on the Medication Attitude Inventory (MAI) range from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating more positive attitudes towards medication use and medication adherence. On average, clients in 2018 experienced statistically significant improvement with an average attitude score of 3.45 at admission to a 6.12 at discharge.

Attitude toward taking psychiatric medications is a surrogate measure for medication adherence. Medication adherence is one of the best predictors of sustained recovery.

Improved Functioning

In 2018, patients consistently showed statistically significant functional improvement as measured by the BASIS-32. Comprised of 5 subscales, the BASIS-32 contains an overall average score ranging from 0 to 4, with lower scores indicating greater levels of functioning in daily life, interpersonal relationships, impulsivity, psychosis, depression, and anxiety.

Clients as a group showed significant impairment at admission, and low-moderate impairment (and in many cases, no impairment) at discharge.

Improved Hope

In 2018, clients continued to experience a statistically significant decrease in feelings of hopelessness. On average as a group, clients admitted in 2018 scored 7.54 on the Beck Hopelessness Scale, indicating a nihilistic preoccupation. At graduation, on average as a group, clients who discharged in 2018 scored 3.16, meaning they ccould envision hope for the future or were hopeful.

This finding indicates that, on average, individuals improved from feeling very hopeless at admission to having hopeful future expectations at discharge.

Hope for one’s future is one of the best predictors of continued adherence to a recovery plan. Human beings are much more than constellations of symptoms, thoughts and behaviors. Hopefulness, social interconnectivity, and a sense of self efficacy define recovery and what it means to be mentally well.

Research & Publications

Article: Training Engagement, Baseline Cognitive Functioning, and Cognitive Gains with Computer Cognitive Training: A Cross-Diagnostic Study
Schizophrenia Research: Cognition 2020;19
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Poster: Screening, Delivering and Measuring Outcomes For Cognitive Remediation Training in a Private Non-Profit Community Mental Health Setting
Presented: IPS, The Mental Health Services Conference 2017
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Article: Measuring and Facilitating Client Engagement with Financial Incentives: Implications for Improving Clinical Outcomes in a Mental Health Setting
Community Mental Health Journal 2016;9: 1-9
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Article: Systematic Study of Structured Diagnostic Procedures in Outpatient Psychiatric Rehabilitation: A Three-year, Three-cohort Study of the Stability of Psychiatric Diagnoses
Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience 2013;10(5-6):14-19
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Poster: A Model Wellness Intervention Aimed at Reducing Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Associated with Psychotropic Medications
Presented: APA Annual Meeting 2015
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Contact our admissions team to learn how Skyland Trail can help you or your loved one.